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nike air max 1 Sewage nutrients fuel coral di

Sewage nutrients fuel coral disease

Nutrient rich water damages Caribbean corals by encouraging the spread of infections, a marine study has found. This is the first experiment in the ocean to show how agricultural run off and sewage may nike air max 1 destroy coral.

It will also fuel debate about whether run off from Queensland’s sugar cane and cattle stations threatens the relatively pristine Great Barrier Reef, home to almost one fifth of the world’s coral reefs.

“We’ve found pretty convincing evidence of a nutrient effect. It’s really happening,” says John Bruno of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, who was lead researcher on the study.

While nutrients may increase the severity of coral disease, the root cause of epidemics remains largely a mystery, says Bruno. Around 80 per cent of Caribbean coral has been lost to disease in the past 20 years, but the decimation occurred across the whole region, not just where pollution is a problem.

However, the nutrients from agricultural run off and untreated sewage, or even natural causes that bring deep water to the surface, may be making epidemics more severe in the Caribbean. And the problem could worsen.

In one experiment, the researchers grafted pieces of sea fan infected with aspergillosis onto healthy sea fans in reefs off Mexico’s Yucatn coast. Then, every week for three months, they attached a fresh bag of slow release garden fertiliser a few centimetres from the graft.

The bags increased the nutrient concentration to between two and 10 times background levels, equivalent to a mildly polluted reef. Exposed to extra nutrients, about nike air max 1 twice as much of the sea fan colony became infected with aspergillosis compared with colonies that received the graft but no extra nutrients.

Bruno and his colleagues also studied two species of the reef building hard coral Montastraea. This can take hundreds of years to grow, so rather than infect healthy coral, the team studied ones that were already infected with yellow band disease. Upsetting the nutrient balance on the reefs may damage coral in other ways, too. For example, some scientists argue that nutrients stimulate the growth of algae, which then take over space that would otherwise be occupied by coral.

“[Bruno’s] results are fairly conclusive,” says Peter Ridd of James Cook University in Townsville, Australia. But, he says, the nutrient level used in the study was generally higher than those seen on the Great Barrier Reef. What is more, although disease is a huge problem for the Caribbean reefs, the barrier reef is relatively disease free.

Conservationists claim that climate change and agricultural run off are already taking their toll on the barrier reef, and that some reefs closer to land have less coral coverage and less diversity than before. But some scientists, including Ridd, have argued th nike air max 1 at any run off is likely to be far too dilute to affect the coral, and that the relatively small changes that have been seen on the barrier reef so far may be due to natural fluctuations in coral growth (New Scie nike air max 1 ntist print edition, 4 January 2003).

But Clive Wilkinson, a coral expert at the Australian Institute of Marine Science in Townsville, says he is worried about the future of the barrier reef. “The nasty trilogy of disease, climate change and pollution are all acting together to knock out coral around the world. On the Great Barrier Reef, we’re not pressing the panic buttons yet. But we’re nervous.”

nike air max 1 Sew Your Own Reusable Shopping

Sew Your Own Reusable Shopping Bag Or Tote

As noted above, you should choose a sturdy fabric such as heavy duty cotton or calico. To make one bag you’ll need half a yard of fabric (assuming the fabric width is 43″ or more). For metric sewers, you’ll need metre of fabric if the fabric is at least 106cm wide.

It may also be worthwhile to invest in some quality thread, as you may be carrying some heavy items in your bag, and you cannot afford to have your bag break due to cheap quality thread!

There are only 5 pieces to cut out. 2 rectangles form the bag’s front and back, there is one long piece that joins the front and back (to give the bag depth), and then 2 pieces for your handles.

Lay your fabric face down, and then draw out your rectangles as follows:

Bag sides (you’ll need 2 of these) 13 nike air max 1 ” wide by 14″ tall (this gives a ” seam allowance). In metric, this is 2 rectangles 34cm by 36cm (with a 1cm seam allowance).

Then you’ll need long rec nike air max 1 tangle measuring 42″ by 5″ (or 106cm by nike air max 1 12cm).

Lay them out as shown in this di nike air max 1 agram here and then cut out.

Take your webbing and cut 2 handles each 24″ long (or 61cm).

Basically, the long piece of fabric needs to be sewn along three sides of each rectangle (as shown in this diagram here). Place one rectangle along the side of the long piece (right sides together) and start sewing. Stitch slowly when turning the corners of the rectangle. I strongly recommend that you sew each seam twice for extra strength, especially at the corners.

Now attach your handles to the bag and sew on by sewing a rectangle, then sew a cross in the middle (see this diagram here). Again, it would be wise to double stitch these seams.